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Cafetaleros [Peru]


Pierre-Yves BRUNAUD / Picturetank

Arabica, robusta, expresso, lyophilisé, serré ou allongé, le café est un produit largement vanté par la publicité et les marques commerciales sont connues de tous. On sait moins qu’il est la 6ème matière première échangée dans le monde et que de sa culture dépend la vie de 25 millions de producteurs en Amérique latine, Afrique & Asie.

À l’image de la plupart des pays d’Amérique Latine, le Pérou est un pays de café. Longtemps considéré comme un producteur de cafés médiocres, le pays des Incas s’est hissé en 10 ans au 6ème rang des exportateurs mondiaux de café, grâce notamment à un important travail sur la qualité. Cette amélioration a coïncidé avec l’ouverture de nouveaux marchés internationaux, comme celui des cafés biologiques, équitables et gourmets.

La situation des cafetaleros péruviens est représentative de celle de nombreux producteurs dans le monde : isolés, ils cultivent de petites parcelles (1 à 3 hectares en moyenne) dans des zones montagneuses difficiles d’accès. En raison de cet enclavement, ils vendent leur café à des intermédiaires en position de force pour négocier un prix d’achat. Ce prix dépend à son tour des prix fixés par les bourses de New York (Arabica) et Londres (Robusta), qui ont la réputation d’être fluctuants et imprévisibles, car soumis à la spéculation. Lorsque les cours chutent, les prix locaux s’effondrent par ricochet. Les petits producteurs indépendants n’ont souvent pas d’autre choix que celui de quitter leurs terres pour aller travailler dans d’autres régions.

Pour remédier à cette précarité et améliorer leurs conditions de vie, certains producteurs se sont organisés en coopératives : ils peuvent ainsi mutualiser leur production, investir dans du matériel de transport et de transformation, partager leurs expériences et mieux négocier avec les acheteurs.

C’est à ces coopératives que s’adresse le label du commerce équitable Fairtrade / Max Havelaar. En échange du respect de critères environnementaux et sociaux, le label leur propose de nouveaux débouchés commerciaux, à de meilleures conditions, pour permettre aux producteurs de vivre dignement de leur travail.

Les coopératives de CENFROCAFÉ et CEPICAFÉ sont situées au Nord du Pérou, dans la région de Piura, sur les premiers contreforts des Andes. Certifiées par des contrôleurs indépendants, elles sont depuis en relation commerciale avec des acheteurs qui revendent leur café en France, mais aussi dans toute l’Europe et aux États-Unis.

La mécanisation des récoltes y est impossible, et les rendements faibles en raison de la topographie et des sols. Le café bénéficie cependant dans cette région de conditions exceptionnelles : il pousse en altitude à l’ombre d’arbres tropicaux et fait l’objet d’un savoir-faire transmis de père en fils depuis plusieurs générations. Ces atouts confèrent au café local un potentiel de qualité important et permettent de préserver une agriculture paysanne traditionnelle.


 

Pierre-Yves Brunaud / Picturetank BRP0167513

Panorama over Las Pirias valley, in the district of Chirinos. The fairtrade coffee producers of the CENFROCAFÉ co-operative live around Mañaron valley, in the province of Cajamarca in northern Peru. The organisation's headquarters are based in Jaen, a small city 7 hours from the Pacific coast, in the foothills of the Andes. From there, it takes another 2 hours to reach Chirinos, where one of the co-operative's best varieties of fairtrade coffee is grown. CREDITS: Pierre-Yves BRUNAUD / Picturetank for Max Havelaar

Las Pirias, Chirinos, Cajamarca, Peru - 25/07/2008

 

Pierre-Yves Brunaud / Picturetank BRP0167514

On the road to Tabaconas, 3 hours from the road to the city of Jaen, in the province of Cajamarca. As soon as we start to get further away from the big cities and into the mountains, the road is no longer sealed. There are essentially only trucks and buses on these roads. Any motor vehicle becomes a potential taxi for the inhabitants who wish to get from one village to another. During the rainy season, the roads become difficult to navigate and the mountain villages are sometimes cut off from the world. CREDITS: Pierre-Yves BRUNAUD / Picturetank for Max Havelaar

Palla Peña, Tabaconas, Peru - 25/07/2008

 

Pierre-Yves Brunaud / Picturetank BRP0167424

Sergio Muñoz makes an early start in his "finca". Santa Fe, district of Montero. "The mule is our car!" The coffee producers do not have the use of a motorised vehicle to get to the village or to their plantations. The donkey or mule is thus the most practical means of transport: a kind of "local 4x4" that is less polluting and allows the locals to use the steepest, craggiest paths, whatever the season. CREDITS: Pierre-Yves BRUNAUD / Picturetank for Max Havelaar

Montero, Ayabaca, Peru - 25/07/2008

 

Pierre-Yves Brunaud / Picturetank BRP0167549

Harvest in Palla Peña, in the district of Tabaconas. In Peru, the coffee harvesting period is organised from the beginning of June to the end of September, according to the altitude and climactic conditions. Although manual harvesting restricts productivity, it helps to obtain a much higher quality of coffee, due to the selection of mature cherries (red) only. CREDITS: Pierre-Yves BRUNAUD / Picturetank for Max Havelaar

Tabaconas, Peru - 25/07/2008

 

Pierre-Yves Brunaud / Picturetank BRP0167509

Sergio Muñoz in his "finca", Santa Fe, district of Montero. "When I come here, in my finca, I concentrate on what I'm doing and I forget everything else." Former president of the district's coffee producers' association, Sergio played an important part in the development of the CEPICAFÉ co-operative: his position led him to travel throughout the South American continent. During the years when he managed his association, he continued to cultivate parcels of coffee in order to continue to feed his family. CREDITS: Pierre-Yves BRUNAUD / Picturetank for Max Havelaar

Montero, Ayabaca, Peru - 25/07/2008

 

Pierre-Yves Brunaud / Picturetank BRP0167467

Amaro Chasquero and his son. Las Pirias, Chirinos. "Four years ago, I was worried: the fruit was yellow and of bad quality. Some of my neighbours left, they abandoned their homes. For example, my sister left for Lima with her 7 children and she can't make ends meet. But for several years, with the development of new production techniques, things are improving. We are better organised, with better, more perennial methods of cultivation." CREDITS: Pierre-Yves BRUNAUD / Picturetank for Max Havelaar

Peru - 25/07/2008

 

Pierre-Yves Brunaud / Picturetank BRP0167501

Alejandro Baca Maldonado with a mutualised washing module. Santa Rosa, Montero district. "Recently, times have been tough due to climate changes. But we won't leave. We were born here, we'll stay here." For several years now, the CEPICAFÉ producers have observed a change in the order of seasons. This year it rained until July, whereas the dry season normally begins two months earlier. The lack of sunshine had a negative impact on local levels of production. CREDITS: Pierre-Yves BRUNAUD / Picturetank for Max Havelaar

Peru - 25/07/2008

 

Pierre-Yves Brunaud / Picturetank BRP0167504

Segundo Alejandro Guerrero Mandragon, in front of his house in Chonta, Montero district. "The living conditions have greatly improved. We don't have a lot of money, but enough to live on." Segundo was the president of CEPICAFÉ up until April 2008 and its chief spokesperson for many years. His position allowed him to travel in France and Germany for events relating to fair trade. He is proud that he has been able to finance the studies of his seven children: one of his daughters is currently writing a thesis on coffee production. CREDITS: Pierre-Yves BRUNAUD / Picturetank for Max Havelaar

Chonta, Montero, Ayabaca, Peru - 25/07/2008

 

Pierre-Yves Brunaud / Picturetank BRP0167423

À l’approche du village de Montero, Ayabaca.

Montero, Ayabaca, Peru - 25/07/2008

LE CRÉDIT MAX HAVELAAR N'EST PAS OBLIGATOIRE

 

Pierre-Yves Brunaud / Picturetank BRP0167427

On the main street at dusk, in Montero. Without traffic, the peaceful evening atmosphere is regularly disturbed by "the voice": a loud-speaker noisily alerts the inhabitants when a telephone call awaits them in the village's central phone booth. CREDITS: Pierre-Yves BRUNAUD / Picturetank for Max Havelaar

Montero, Peru - 25/07/2008

 

Pierre-Yves Brunaud / Picturetank BRP0167411

Bal de la « Fiesta Patria », village de Montero. À la tombée de la nuit, des hauts-parleurs gonflés en décibels diffusent une musique festive qui attire les jeunes de tout le district sur le terrain de sport du village. Pendant que des bénévoles assurent la sécurité et ramassent les bouteilles vides pour éviter tout débordement, les mères de familles couvent sagement du regard leur progéniture depuis les tribunes.

Montero, Ayabaca, Peru - 25/07/2008

LE CRÉDIT MAX HAVELAAR N'EST PAS OBLIGATOIRE

 

Pierre-Yves Brunaud / Picturetank BRP0167483

Sergio Muñoz, on the path to the Montero waterfall, armed with his machete. "In their offices the engineers say "Yes, yes, the producers are selling well..." but they don't know the actual investment figures." For several years now, the price of the natural fertilisers required for organic farming (manure, guano etc) has literally exploded in the face of an increase in demand. The members of CEPICAFÉ have reacted by deciding to use the fair trade development bonus as a contingency fund for the purchase of natural fertilisers, thus remedying the financial difficulties of the cafetaleros. CREDITS: Pierre-Yves BRUNAUD / Picturetank for Max Havelaar

Montero, Ayabaca, Peru - 25/07/2008

 

Pierre-Yves Brunaud / Picturetank BRP0167499

Plant nursery in Palla Peña, Tabaconas district. Isaïas, the son of a coffee producer and the nursery's technician, delicately sows eucalyptus seeds. These trees, imported from Australia, are particularly well-adapted to the local climate and to coffee crops. They offer shade while allowing good ventilation for the coffee plants. Their rapid growth is also an advantage for the producers. CREDITS: Pierre-Yves BRUNAUD / Picturetank for Max Havelaar

Palla Peña, Tabaconas, Peru - 25/07/2008

 

Pierre-Yves Brunaud / Picturetank BRP0174529

Les eucalyptus se révèlent particulièrement adaptés au climat local et aux cultures de café : ils offrent un ombrage tamisé tout en permettant une bonne ventilation des plants de café. Adossées à des versants pentus, les fincas des producteurs de la région de Piura ont échappé à la culture intensive et à l’usage massif de pesticides ou d’engrais chimiques qui l’accompagnent généralement. Les cafetaleros péruviens peuvent ainsi plus facilement respecter le cahier des charges du commerce équitable. Celui-ci interdit l’usage de nombreux pesticides et encourage une culture respectueuse de l’environnement : préservation des ressources, protection des cours d’eau, lutte contre l’érosion, gestion des déchets…

Santa Fe, Cajamarca, Peru - 18/07/2008

 

Pierre-Yves Brunaud / Picturetank BRP0167485

Rivière sur les hauteurs de Montero. Autre bénéfice des formations dispensées par la coopérative : les producteurs ont pris conscience de l’importance de la préservation de la qualité de l’eau. Ils creusent désormais des puits de rétention afin de recueillir l’eau souillée par le lavage du café ; ils évitent ainsi la contamination des rivières, principale source d’eau potable pour les riverains.

Montero, Ayabaca, Peru - 25/07/2008

LE CRÉDIT MAX HAVELAAR N'EST PAS OBLIGATOIRE

 

Pierre-Yves Brunaud / Picturetank BRP0167389

Meeting of producers from the Corazón del Chirinos association, Chirinos district. The regular meetings of cafetaleros at a local level, allow them to exchange ideas on production techniques, problems encountered, common projects and so on. Here, two representatives of the association are being elected to attend a training program for promoters of agricultural techniques, based on the co-operative's proposition to each of the affiliated associations in the region. It is essential that all of the members be present or represented at the co-operative's meetings, to ensure that the proceedings are democratic and transparent. Signing one's presence in the register is a strong symbolic gesture, since many of the producers do not know how to write. According to fair trade stipulations, the co-operatives must be capable of proving, during inspections, that decisions have been made democratically. CREDITS: Pierre-Yves BRUNAUD / Picturetank for Max Havelaar

Corazón del Chirinos, Cajamarca, Peru - 25/07/2008

 

Pierre-Yves Brunaud / Picturetank BRP0167348

Santos Modesto Melendrez, Caserio de Palla Peña, Tabaconas district. "We have decided that we shouldn't stay alone, without help to guide us and have formed a central body which assembles smaller associations and which is still called the Central Fronteriza del Norte de Cafetaleros (CENFROCAFÉ). It was born here on October 26th 1999, in our caserío de Palla Peña, within our association, San José Obrero. I am the founder and proud to be." Modesto became aware of the exploitation of small producers through his social work in the community. He thus succeeded in mobilising several other cafetaleros in the area in order to co-manage the exportation of their coffee beyond the valley. Today, their voice is much stronger for fighting against the government's plans to implant gold and silver mine exploitations in the region. If these projects are carried out, the pollution produced by the extraction and washing of the precious ores would not make the district's fortune, but would greatly threaten, on the contrary, the ecosystem of the whole area and, by extension, the entire local system of coffee production. CREDITS: Pierre-Yves BRUNAUD / Picturetank for Max Havelaar

Palla Peña, Tabaconas, Peru - 25/07/2008

 

Pierre-Yves Brunaud / Picturetank BRP0167406

Construction of the new drying factory by the producers of CENFROCAFÉ, Palla Peña, Tabaconas district. This year, thanks to the fair trade bonus and financing from supporting organisms, the Palla Peña cafetaleros were able to start building this drying factory, which will allow them to obtain a more homogenous quality of green coffee, and thus a better selling price. CREDITS: Pierre-Yves BRUNAUD / Picturetank for Max Havelaar

Palla Peña, Tabaconas, Peru - 25/07/2008

 

Pierre-Yves Brunaud / Picturetank BRP0167349

Anner Roman Neira, CENFROCAFÉ president, Caserio de Palla Peña, Tabaconas district. Anner, at just 30 years old, is the president of CENFROCAFÉ. Reelected this year for the second time, this producer's son negotiates everyday with the big European and American importers. For the last two years he has also been taking night classes in accounting at the University of Jaen, to reinforce his managerial talents. Although he doesn't have time to regularly visit his family in Chirinos, he doesn't regret his new way of life, which allows him to initiate ambitious projects for the good of his peers. The founders of CENFROCAFÉ and the "socios" of the co-operative recognise him as a true leader. CREDITS: Pierre-Yves BRUNAUD / Picturetank for Max Havelaar

Palla Peña, Tabaconas, Peru - 25/07/2008

 

Pierre-Yves Brunaud / Picturetank BRP0167405

Segundo Alejandro Guerrero, in his sugar cane plantation, Chonta, Montero. Like a lot of other coffee producers in the district, Segundo diversified his crops with sugar cane fields. Since last year, thanks to financial support from the co-operative, the big building adjacent to his house now houses a rendering factory for panela (raw sugar) which all the members of CEPICAFÉ benefit from. CREDITS: Pierre-Yves BRUNAUD / Picturetank for Max Havelaar

Montero, Ayabaca, Peru - 25/07/2008

 

Pierre-Yves Brunaud / Picturetank BRP0167383

Déchargement du café à l’entrepôt de stockage de CENFROCAFÉ, Jaen La mise en commun des moyens d’exportations du café vert vers le marché national, puis international, est une des premières raisons d’être de la coopérative. Les cafetaleros évitent ainsi d’avoir affaire aux intermédiaires, les « coyottes » qui essaient systématiquement de baisser le prix du café quitte à profiter du manque de connaissance que les producteurs ont du marché.

Jaen, Cajamarca, Peru - 25/07/2008

LE CRÉDIT MAX HAVELAAR N'EST PAS OBLIGATOIRE

 

Pierre-Yves Brunaud / Picturetank BRP0167382

CENFROCAFÉ Storage centre for dried coffee parchement, Jaen. This is where all of the CENFROCAFÉ cafetaleros' harvests converge. Each sack is sampled to take note of the aspect, size and colour of the coffee grains. This criteria serves to determine the number of defects per sample, the physical quality of the product and thus its buying price for the producer. CREDITS: Pierre-Yves BRUNAUD / Picturetank for Max Havelaar

Jaen, Cajamarca, Peru - 25/07/2008

 

Pierre-Yves Brunaud / Picturetank BRP0167381

Déchargement du café à l’entrepôt de stockage de CENFROCAFÉ, Jaen. La mise en commun des moyens d’exportations du café vert vers le marché national, puis international, est une des premières raisons d’être de la coopérative. Les cafetaleros évitent ainsi d’avoir affaire aux intermédiaires, les « coyottes » qui essaient systématiquement de baisser le prix du café quitte à profiter du manque de connaissance que les producteurs ont du marché.

Jaen, Cajamarca, Peru - 25/07/2008

LE CRÉDIT MAX HAVELAAR N'EST PAS OBLIGATOIRE

 

Pierre-Yves Brunaud / Picturetank BRP0167335

Alexander notes the smell of the coffees in CENFROCAFÉ's tasting laboratory, Jaen. "A coffee doesn't have to be perfect. Only God is perfect." Most of the CENFROCAFÉ coffees obtain results between 80 and 90 out of 100. The co-operative participates in regional and national competitions - it was even awarded a prize in France last year - and can now depend on a 10 -20 dollar supplement in prices on average per 69 kg. CREDITS: Pierre-Yves BRUNAUD / Picturetank for Max Havelaar

Jaen, Cajamarca, Peru - 25/07/2008

 

Pierre-Yves Brunaud / Picturetank BRP0167380

Transformation factory in Norandino, Piura. The final phase before export in the transformation of green coffee, the sorting of grains according to their size and appearance requires sustained attention and expert hands. The co-operative employs only women for this operation, who reputably pay more attention to details and are more skillful than men. CREDITS: Pierre-Yves BRUNAUD / Picturetank for Max Havelaar

Piura, Ayabaca, Peru - 25/07/2008

 

Pierre-Yves Brunaud / Picturetank BRP0167377

Storage of coffee sacks. Norandino factory, Piura. The sacks of green coffee, in the co-operative's colours, are then stored in the factory's warehouse according to the quality of the coffee and its type of certification. CREDITS: Pierre-Yves BRUNAUD / Picturetank for Max Havelaar

Piura, Ayabaca, Peru - 25/07/2008

 

Pierre-Yves Brunaud / Picturetank BRP0167404

Nelida Diaz Carrasco, teacher at the Centro Rural de Formación en Alternancia (CRFA) in Corazón del Chirinos. The school where Nelida teaches is the only one in the region. It was inspired by the model of French rural familial homes and gives alternating lessons to the children of producers in the village. Its funding was partly assured by the fair trade bonus. CREDITS: Pierre-Yves BRUNAUD / Picturetank for Max Havelaar

Corazón del Chirinos, Cajamarca, Peru - 25/07/2008

 

Pierre-Yves Brunaud / Picturetank BRP0167403

Show of traditional Peruvian dance, Corazón del Chirinos school. Besides the classic school subjects, the pupils receive training adapted to agricultural careers: production, transformation of raw materials, sale of animal and vegetable products raised on the school's farm and so on. The teaching sessions last 15 days per month. The other half of the time, they can thus help their parents in the fields. CREDITS: Pierre-Yves BRUNAUD / Picturetank for Max Havelaar

Corazón del Chirinos, Peru - 25/07/2008

 

Pierre-Yves Brunaud / Picturetank BRP0167330

Sergio Santos Moreno, élève au Centro Rural de Formación en Alternancia (CRFA), école en Alternance de Corazón del Chirinos. « Je voudrais devenir technicien ou ingénieur agronome… J’aime ça, et ce serait facile pour moi d’y arriver ». Sergio a la chance de suivre les cours du centre de formation en alternance, ce qui lui permet d’étudier tout en continuant à aider ses parents dans les champs. Beaucoup d’enfants de producteurs manifestent un attachement fort à la terre sur laquelle ils ont grandi : même lorsqu’ils partent découvrir une autre réalité à la ville, ils reviennent très régulièrement dans les villages auprès de leurs familles. Et le développement économique de ces régions rurales pourrait en décider plus d’un à s’y établir à nouveau durablement.

Corazón del Chirinos, Cajamarca, Peru - 25/07/2008

LE CRÉDIT MAX HAVELAAR N'EST PAS OBLIGATOIRE

 

Pierre-Yves Brunaud / Picturetank BRP0167331

Ronald Alejandro Baca, fils de producteur de café, dans les cataratas (chutes d’eau) de hauteurs de Montero. La valorisation d’un terroir ne passe pas uniquement par le développement de l’agriculture paysanne. D’autres alternatives existent pour les jeunes qui désirent rester sur leurs terres. Diplômé d’études de langues et de marketing à Piura, Alejandro démarre un projet d’agence de tourisme dans sa région natale : il est persuadé que la venue des touristes contribuera à créer des retombées économiques pour les habitants de son village. Toujours par monts et par vaux entre Piura et Montero, Alejandro parcourt la province pour faire découvrir la qualité de la faune, de la flore, et les vestiges précolombiens qui s’y cachent.

Montero, Ayabaca, Peru - 25/07/2008

LE CRÉDIT MAX HAVELAAR N'EST PAS OBLIGATOIRE

 

Pierre-Yves Brunaud / Picturetank BRP0167426

Family vigil in the home of Amaro Chasquero, Las Pirias, Chirinos. "The young people will do better than us, for a better future and to offer a healthy environment to the world." Father of seven children, Amaro insists on transmitting to each of them his love for the earth. His eldest son is the proud owner of a 2 hectare plot of land which he takes care of autonomously. But this doesn't stop him from helping his father at harvest time. CREDITS: Pierre-Yves BRUNAUD / Picturetank for Max Havelaar

Las Pirias, Chirinos, Cajamarca, Peru - 25/07/2008



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