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Classes Moyennes en Afrique - KENYA


Joan Bardeletti

Dans 20 ans, 1 milliard de personnes des pays en développement appartiendront à la classe moyenne mondiale, soit un habitant sur six sur la planète. Cette population sera surtout concentrée dans des pays dits « pauvres » alors qu’elle est aujourd’hui le symbole du mode de vie occidental. Bien visible en Amérique du Sud et en Asie, ce phénomène est encore sous-jacent en Afrique mais au coeur des enjeux de développement du continent. En associant une démarche photographique et scientifique, ce projet a pour but de comprendre et décrire les classes moyennes africaines. Pour plus de détail voir également www.classesmoyennes-afrique.org


 

Joan Bardeletti / Picturetank BAJ0238797

In Nairobi city centre, a high-school student performs dance moves in front of his friends during shooting of an episode of «So you think you can dance!». The series came from the US and has been adapted worldwide. It is very popular with young people who sign up in mass to take part.

Nairobi, Kenya - 03/06/2009

 

Joan Bardeletti / Picturetank BAJ0238798

In the suburbs of Nairobi, nearly 45 minutes from the city centre, a large estate of new apartment buildings is nearly finished and the apartments are now for sale. Access to housing is one of the hardest challenges for the middle classes with the sharp rise in prices. The only solution is to move further away from the city centre.

Nairobi, Kenya - 03/06/2009

 

Joan Bardeletti / Picturetank BAJ0238799

At Sally's house. She runs a well-to-do Chinese restaurant in town. Two of her nieces live with her and she employs a nanny (seen here giving her niece's daughter breakfast), as well as a cleaning lady full-time. She bought her apartment a few years ago and it is part of a gated community, so she feels safe when she gets back late from working in the restaurant.

Nairobi, Kenya - 03/06/2009

 

Joan Bardeletti / Picturetank BAJ0238801

The races. Betting on horses is very popular and the population flock to the race course every weekend. There are two spaces : one is free for poorer people, and the other costs the equivalent of $1 and is secure. The latter is frequented by the upper and middle classes who have access to the stands.

Nairobi, Kenya - 03/06/2009

 

Joan Bardeletti / Picturetank BAJ0238802

Joy makes her pupils recite a poem out loud in French. She is a French teacher in a high school and earns just under 120€ a month. She used to live in the school she taught in, but was recently transferred and had to find a place to live which uses three quarters of her income. The private school where she teaches is cheap and has a mix of children from the slums and others from wealthier families.

Nairobi, Kenya - 03/06/2009

 

Joan Bardeletti / Picturetank BAJ0238803

Carrie has been a ranger with the Kenya Wildlife Service for several years. Every day she goes round the park checking that the animals are well and that any building work is going to plan (as seen here). She reckons she earns a good living (730€ a month), especially as the KWS provides her with health care and a place to live... right in the middle of the park.

Nairobi, Kenya - 03/06/2009

 

Joan Bardeletti / Picturetank BAJ0238804

On Nairobi University campus. The middle classes are very exposed to corruption in Africa as they are too poor to defend themselves, but rich enough to have something to steal.

Nairobi, Kenya - 03/06/2009

 

Joan Bardeletti / Picturetank BAJ0238807

The rug and fabric department of "Nakumat Lifestyle" supermarket, open 24hrs a day in the centre of Nairobi. The hypermarkets of the Nakumat group are gradually pushing out local shops, and the smallest grocery shops generally run by Indians. They have become a place to shop but also to visit, have fun or meet with friends.

Nairobi, Kenya - 03/06/2009

 

Joan Bardeletti / Picturetank BAJ0238808

A Rotary Club meeting in Nairobi. Young white collar workers and entrepreneurs meet each week with more experienced business men following strict etiquette. These clubs are numerous in Nairobi. They were inherited from British colonisation and structure society.

Nairobi, Kenya - 03/06/2009

 

Joan Bardeletti / Picturetank BAJ0238805

An airport employee takes a break on night duty. She has a modest but regular income of $4 a day, which means she just scrapes into the middle classes.

Nairobi, Kenya - 03/06/2009

 

Joan Bardeletti / Picturetank BAJ0238800

Ousmane plays golf at the Royal Nairobi Golf Club. The club is next to Kiberi (the roofs are visible in the background) which is one of the largest slums in Africa. Ousmane grew up and still lives in Kiberi. He started working as a caddy for foreigners before being hired by one of them as a handy man in a research institute.

Nairobi, Kenya - 03/06/2009

 

Joan Bardeletti / Picturetank BAJ0238806

Joy's nephew practices long jump from an arm chair in the sitting room while waiting to go to church. Joy is mother to two children and took in her sister's children when she died. On Sundays they each go to their own church ; an evangelical church for Joy and a section specifically devoted to children for her daughters.

Nairobi, Kenya - 03/06/2009

 

Joan Bardeletti / Picturetank BAJ0238863

The three heads of the Kenyan NGO «Reality Tested Youth programme» during a session on educating children in one of Nairobi's slums, Mathare. On the right, Calvin the founder, earns around 800€ a month with his salary and consulting work for foreign NGOs. He grew up and still lives in Mathare.

Nairobi, Kenya - 03/06/2009

 

Joan Bardeletti / Picturetank BAJ0238810

A park in the centre of Nairobi. It is the showcase of the city, but also a place where homeless people spend the night, and can still be seen on the grass in the morning.

Nairobi, Kenya - 03/06/2009

 

Joan Bardeletti / Picturetank BAJ0238809

A night watchman in the gated community that Sally lives in. He is underpaid by security companies that are growing in number, he isn't allowed to eat or read during the 12 hours he works from 7pm to 7am.

Nairobi, Kenya - 03/06/2009

 

Joan Bardeletti / Picturetank BAJ0238813

Young girls at a private school in Nairobi are photographed at the top of the ICEA building, the highest in the city, during a school visit.

Nairobi, Kenya - 03/06/2009

 

Joan Bardeletti / Picturetank BAJ0238812

A visit to a GP in the private "Avenue Hospital" clinic in Nairobi. An appointment costs 3€ whereas state hospitals are free, but the middle classes come as there is no wait and they feel that the diagnosis is usually more accurate. Felix, the GP, has just turned 27 and finished his studies. He earns 700€ a month and lives with his parents.

Nairobi, Kenya - 03/06/2009

 

Joan Bardeletti / Picturetank BAJ0238811

In Kibera, a slum in Nairobi and one of the biggest in Africa. The building over the street is the headquarters of the Jubilee Club, a Gentleman's Club in the purest British tradition. Its members are mainly Nubians, a tribe that descend from Sudanese soldiers employed during colonisation. Inside there is a sign that says, "No women, no drugs, no politics".

Nairobi, Kenya - 03/06/2009

 

Joan Bardeletti / Picturetank BAJ0238817

A meeting at the Jubilee Club in Kibera. The thirty or so members get together each week to chat, drink, chew khat and watch Premier League football matches in England. To join the club you have to be sponsored by a member, take a moral exam and pay a subscription. For lower middle classes, the club acts as social mesh.

Nairobi, Kenya - 03/06/2009

 

Joan Bardeletti / Picturetank BAJ0238814

Billal, a phone company technician, mends a telephone pole on the edge of the motorway.

Nairobi, Kenya - 03/06/2009

 

Joan Bardeletti / Picturetank BAJ0238818

Billal in his house in Kibera waits for his wife to come home from the madrasa where she teaches. His wage as a technician is only 230€ a month, that he supplements with 100€ from renting rooms in his house. He has three children but is also looking after the three children of his deceased sister. His oldest son goes to a private school outside the slum which costs 700€ a year.

Nairobi, Kenya - 03/06/2009

 

Joan Bardeletti / Picturetank BAJ0238815

In the car park of a group of apartment buildings in the suburb of Ambakasi, near Nairobi airport. Ericka, who works for a foreign embassy, lives here even though she works in the city centre. This was the only place where she could find an apartment that was spacious and easy to get to, as well as affordable on her salary of 460€ a month.

Nairobi, Kenya - 03/06/2009

 

Joan Bardeletti / Picturetank BAJ0238858

Coming out of a service in an evangelical church in Kitui, a small town in the Kenyan provinces. After having mainly set up in poor communities, these churches are growing in wealthier areas too.

Kitui, Kenya - 10/06/2009

 

Joan Bardeletti / Picturetank BAJ0238859

A lawyer's office in a place where companies are flourishing in Kitui.

Kitui, Kenya - 03/06/2009

 

Joan Bardeletti / Picturetank BAJ0238860

Adult evening classes in logistics run by a private university in Nairobi. Participants come straight from work. They are often white collar workers in Kenyan companies and want to have more responsibility at work.

Nairobi, Kenya - 03/06/2009

 

Joan Bardeletti / Picturetank BAJ0238857

The ground floor of the Loita Building, a business centre in Nairobi. Many Kenyan and foreign companies have their offices here.

Nairobi, Kenya - 03/06/2009

 

Joan Bardeletti / Picturetank BAJ0238865

Ericka in her living room with her 1-year old daughter, Angel. Ericka works for a foreign company and carries out financial analysis for them. She also owns a small beauty product company that she has appointed a manager to run.

Nairobi, Kenya - 03/06/2009

 

Joan Bardeletti / Picturetank BAJ0238861

Oussmane hosts a radio show on Congolese music every Friday on Pamodja FM. He is bilingual and translates the French lyrics for his listeners of these songs that are very popular in English-speaking Kenya. The small salary he earns is necessary as it is not always easy to get to the end of the month with his son in a private school that costs nearly 400€ a year.

Nairobi, Kenya - 03/06/2009

 

Joan Bardeletti / Picturetank BAJ0238864

Oussmane working during a move. His job as a handy man for a foreign research institute provides him with a middle class salary but doesn't allow him any extras. After 25 years of working for them, the company offered him a two-week trip to Europe ; it was the first time he'd left Africa. He is a practising muslim and has been married twice. His wife has been working in a hotel in Libya for 6 months.

Nairobi, Kenya - 03/06/2009

 

Joan Bardeletti / Picturetank BAJ0238869

A traffic jam in the centre of Nairobi. The number of cars has risen sharply in the past 10 years, jamming this city made up of small streets. On rainy days it can take 2 hours to leave the city centre. People adapt their working hours and some who finish work at 5pm wait until 8pm before driving home.

Nairobi, Kenya - 03/06/2009

 

Joan Bardeletti / Picturetank BAJ0238862

Building a high-speed road in the east of the country near Kitui. The upper middle classes mostly own cars, and sometimes even their children, who have started work and still live with them, do too.

Kitui, Kenya - 10/06/2009

 

Joan Bardeletti / Picturetank BAJ0238870

Calvin in his bedroom. His phone keeps ringing : all his friends want to say good-bye to him as he is leaving for a 6-month stay in Canada the next day. He was a good student but comes from a poor family in Mathare slum. He has been awarded a grant to study in a Canadian University and gain a master's degree. He made a bargain with his two children, they can study abroad but must come back to Kenya to help the country move forward.

Nairobi, Kenya - 03/06/2009

 

Joan Bardeletti / Picturetank BAJ0238872

All of Joy's family at home. On the top left, her cleaning lady who works full time and helps out with shopping, cleaning, laundry etc.

Nairobi, Kenya - 03/06/2009

 

Joan Bardeletti / Picturetank BAJ0238875

Ousmane has taken a day off to go to the village that his uncle died in a few days ago. All the family have come for the funeral.

Kenya - 00/00/0000

 

Joan Bardeletti / Picturetank BAJ0238871

Sally is 30 and runs a Chinese restaurant in the city centre. She feels that her job is going nowhere. She has decided to go back to school and get a diploma that would allow her to work for an NGO. At midnight she writes her dissertation in candle light as there is a power cut, after her day's work in the restaurant.

Nairobi, Kenya - 03/06/2009

 

Joan Bardeletti / Picturetank BAJ0238873

In the car park of a well-to-do bar where a football match is being shown on television, an employee waits to accompany clients to the door.

Nairobi, Kenya - 03/06/2009

 

Joan Bardeletti / Picturetank BAJ0238874

Mama Diana works in the fields with he grandson on her back. She is retired and widowed and lives in the small village of Kitui. She has two hectares of land and cattle as well as two farm hands and this makes her part of the rural middle classes. She has had 6 children and one of them has been working in England as a hairdresser for 10 years. She never worked and left school when she was 8. Her husband is an air traffic controller in Mombassa.

Kitui, Kenya - 10/06/2009

 

Joan Bardeletti / Picturetank BAJ0238876

Ericka has a coffee break in the foreign embassy where she works as a financial analyst.

Nairobi, Kenya - 03/06/2009

 

Joan Bardeletti / Picturetank BAJ0238877

The playground of a private school in Kitui.

Kitui, Kenya - 10/06/2009



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